Dictionary

Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in 1995, we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever-evolving marketing profession.

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Term
Definition
See Also
UCS
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
ultimate consumer
A consumer who buys goods for personal or family use or for household consumption.
ultimate user
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  • consumer
  • UN
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    >>See Also
  • United Nations
  • unadvertised brand
    A brand that is not advertised. Frequently unadvertised brands are the private brands of retail food chains.
    unaided recall
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  • recall test
  • unaware stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unconditioned stimulus
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    UNCTAD
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    underdelivery
    Delivery of fewer impressions, visitors, or conversions than contracted for a specified period of time.
    underdeveloped country
    A country where 1987 GNP per capita ranged from $500 to $1000. This country exhibits the symptoms of the first stages of industrialization, which are (1) small factories are erected to supply the domestic market with such items as batteries, tires, footwear, clothing, building materials, and packaged foods; (2) the proportion of the population engaged in agricultural activities declines and the degree of urbanization increases; and (3) the available educational effort expands and literacy rises.
    underprivileged family
    A family in a social class that does not have enough money to purchase the necessities, i.e., shelter, clothing, and transportation, appropriate for its class status. An underprivileged family is not able to acquire what is expected for its class status and usually is defined as having at least 15 percent lower income than the median for the social class.
    understored
    A market condition that exists when a market has too few stores to provide satisfactorily for the needs of the consumer.
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  • overstored
  • undifferentiated marketing
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    undifferentiated oligopoly
    An oligopoly that produces and markets standardized products-e.g., cement or paper- board boxes.
    unduplicated audience
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  • reach
  • uneven exchange
    An exchange of goods made by a customer when the value of the new goods received is different from that of the goods returned.
    unfair competition
    1. (environments definition) The rivalry among sellers through the use of practices deemed to be unfair by judicial, legal, or administrative agencies such as selling products below cost to drive a competitor out of business, or dumping goods in foreign markets. It is defined in antitrust laws as acts to mislead and confuse consumers, such as the deceptive substitution of one product for another in order to gain unfair advantage over competitors. 2. (retailing definition) A business practice that is not considered ethical in a trade or industry. According to federal and other laws, it is a certain situation and/or practice that unduly injures competitors and works contrary to the public interest as interpreted in the business community and the nation's laws.
    unfair trade practices acts
    Sales below-cost statutes that vary widely from state to state and most frequently prohibit the sale of branded and unbranded goods below cost when the intent is to destroy competition or to injure a competitor.
    unfashionable merchandise
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    Uniform Commercial Code
    A code adopted by most states that provides consistency in commercial law and deals with all the aspects of a commercial transaction as well as other commercial matters such as bulk sales, investment securities, and the bank collection process.
    uniform communications system (UCS)
    A communications standard adopted by the food industry for electronic transmission of information between buyer and seller.
    uniform freight classification
    A system that allows the grouping of related products into specific rate categories. These ratings are based on handling characteristics, bulk, value, and perishability of the product. These ratings are used as the basis for standardized rates for classes of products.
    unique selling proposition (USP)
    An approach to developing the advertising message that concentrates on the uniquely differentiating characteristic of the product that is both important to the customer and a unique strength of the advertised products when compared to competing products.
    Unique Users
    The total number of different users, or different computer terminals which have visited a Web site. This is measured using advanced tracking technology or user registration. Source: Lazworld
    unique visitors
    A measurement of Web site traffic that reflects the number of individuals who have visited a Web site (or network) at least once in a during a fixed time frame.
    unit business manager
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unit control
    The control of stock in terms of merchandise units rather than in terms of dollar value.
    unit load
    A shipment that contains multiple units but moves as a single entity. For example, shipments that are palletized or slipsheeted or containerized are unit load shipments.
    unit margin
    Margin (on sales) is the difference between selling price and cost. This difference is typically expressed either as a percentage of selling price or on a per-unit basis. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_margin
    unit market share
    Unit market share: The units sold by a particular company as a percentage of total market sales, measured in the same units. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_share
    >>See Also
  • market share
  • unit packing
    Packing merchandise in selling units (by the manufacturer) so it can be sold from sample and delivered to the customer without repacking at the store.
    unit price
    In retail, unit price is the price for a single unit of measure of a product sold in more or less than the single unit. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_price
    unit sales manager
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unit train
    An entire train comprising a single product, typically a bulk commodity such as coal or grain. These trains are faster and less expensive to operate than traditional trains because they bypass railyards.
    unitary price elasticity
    A special situation in which a cut in price increases quantity just enough that total revenue remains unchanged.
    United Nations (UN)
    An international organization founded in 1945 of countries whose mission is to promote the cause of peace, prosperity, and human rights for all people.
    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
    An organization set up by the United Nations to assist the less developed Nations. It seeks to accelerate the growth rate of the less developed countries (LDCs) to not less than 5 percent per annum.
    universal product code (UPC)
    1. (retailing definition) A national coordinated system of product identification by which a ten-digit number is assigned to products. The UPC is designed so that at the checkout counter an electronic scanner will read the symbol on the product and automatically transmit the information to a computer that controls the sales register. The code is called OCR-A. 2. (environments definition) A set of bars or lines, printed on most items sold in supermarkets and other mass retailing outlets, that permits computers at checkout counters to retrieve the price of the item from its memory or data base. The data generated can be used for a wide variety of marketing decisions such as inventory control, allocation of shelf space, advertising, pricing, and so on.
    University of Michigan Survey Research Center
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unlearning
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  • extinction
  • unplanned buying
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unplanned center
    A cluster of retail stores within the city in which there is a structured internal pattern of locations, achieved by the independent decisions of stores operating within the land market.
    unseasonable merchandise
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    unsought good
    A product which the consumer does not seek, either from lack of awareness or lack of interest in the particular attributes it has. Because most products are both sought and unsought by different persons this category is not part of the basic classification of goods.
    unwholesome demand
    The desire for goods, services, and activities that are deemed to reduce individual and social welfare. Comment: Examples include the desire for illegal drugs, excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages, and driving at excessive speeds.
    UPC
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    UPC bar codes
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    upper-class
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  • social class
  • upturn
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  • recovery
  • urban population
    Persons living in places of 2,500 or more inhabitants incorporated as cities, villages, boroughs, or areas designated as such by the Census, with some exceptions.
    urbanized area
    An area consisting of a central city or core together with contiguous, closely settled territories that have a combined total population of at least 50,000.
    urbanized core
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    URL
    The location of a resource on the Internet. Term is often used interchangeably with domain and Web address.
    Uruguay Round
    The multilateral negotiations between the member countries of GATT that were held in Uruguay from the mid-1980s to 1993.
    usability
    This term refers to how "user friendly" a web site and its functions are. A site with good usability is a site that makes it easy for visitors to find the information they are looking for or to perform the action they desire. Bad usability is anything that causes confusion or problems for the user. For example, large Flash animations served to a visitor with a dial up connection causes poor usability. Easy, intuitive navigation and clear, informative text enhance usability. Source: SEMPO
    usability testing
    A research step in the design and launch of a Web site where users evaluate the ease of use of a Web site's navigation, layout and other attributes.
    use date
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    use up rate
    The volume or length of time required by a consumer to move from one purchase occasion to another.
    Usenet
    Internet message boards, also known as Newsgroups. Each board has a theme, and there are tens of thousands of usenets concerning every imaginable topic. Many of them cover professional subjects and societies and are rich sources of business information; others are junk and contain little but mindless drivel. Source: Lazworld
    user
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buying roles
  • User Agent
    This is the identity of a web site visitor, spider, browser, etc. The most common user agents are Mozilla and Internet Explorer. Source: SEMPO
    users' expectations method
    A method of forecasting sales that relies on answers from customers regarding their expected consumption or purchases of the product. It is also known as buyers' intentions method.
    USP
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    USPTO
    Acronym for United States Patent & Trademark Office. Source: SEMPO
    >>See Also
  • Trademarks
  • utilitarian function of attitudes
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    utilitarian reference group influence
    The compliance of an individual with perceived expectations of others in order to achieve rewards or avoid punishments.
    utility
    1. (general definition) The state or quality of being useful. 2. (economic definition) The usefulness received by consumers from buying, owning, or consuming a product.
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