Dictionary

Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in 1995, we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever-evolving marketing profession.

Browse terms related to -

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Term
Definition
See Also
tabulation
A procedure by which the number of cases that fall into each of a number of categories are counted.
tachistoscope
A device that provides the researcher timing control over a visual stimulus; in marketing research, the visual stimulus is often a specific advertisement.
tactics
Short-term actions undertaken to achieve implementation of a broader strategy.
tag line
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
>>See Also
  • slogan
  • Tags
    Individual keywords or phrases for organizing content. Source: Lazworld
    Tail Terms
    Search terms that are very specific, long phrases that include one or more modifiers, such as "cheapest helicopter skiing near Banff BC." These longer, more specific terms are called "tail terms" based on a bell-curve distribution of keyword usage that displays the low numbers of little-used terms at the "tail" end of the bell curve graph. (See "The Long Tail" by Wired editor Chris Anderson.) Although long, specific and lesser-used tail terms have low CTRs, they are less competitive (and therefore cheaper) and often catch buyers at the end of the purchase decision process. This means that, even with low click-through numbers, tail terms can have good conversion rates. Source: SEMPO
    >>See Also
  • Head Terms
  • take one pad
    A packet of coupons, refund blanks, or other promotional offers attached to or placed near the product being promoted.
    take transaction
    The sale of goods that are turned over to the customer immediately upon closing the sale rather than delivered.
    takeover
    The process by which a firm or group of investors acquires control of a corporation via merger or a tender offer. The empirical evidence suggests that both the shareholders of the acquired firm and the bidding firm or group gain in the transaction on average-although the major portion of the gain goes to the target firm's stockholders.
    tare
    The weight of a container deducted from the gross weight of the package to determine net weight and allowance for freight.
    target market
    The particular segment of a total population on which the retailer focuses its merchandising expertise to satisfy that submarket in order to accomplish its profit objectives
    target market identification
    The process of using income, demographic, and life style characteristics of a market and census information for small areas to identify the most favorable locations.
    target return pricing
    A method of pricing that attempts to cover all costs and achieve a target return.
    target revenues
    In launching a program, managers often start with an idea of the dollar profit they desire and ask what sales levels will be required to reach it. Target revenue is the dollar sales required to meet an earnings goal. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profit-based_sales_targets
    target volumes
    In launching a program, managers often start with an idea of the dollar profit they desire and ask what sales levels will be required to reach it. Target volume (#) is the unit sales quantity required to meet an earnings goal. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profit-based_sales_targets
    Targeting
    Narrowly focusing ads and keywords to attract a specific, marketing-profiled searcher and potential customer. You can target to geographic locations (geo-targeting), by days of the week or time of day (dayparting), or by gender and age (demographic targeting). Targeting features vary by search engine. Newer ad techniques and software focus on behavioral targeting, based on web activity and behaviors that are predictive for potential customers who might be more receptive to particular ads. Source: SEMPO
    tariff
    A published set of rates for transportation and distribution services.
    tariff system
    The system of duties applied to goods and services from foreign countries. It may be a single rate of duty for each item applicable to all countries or groups of countries or two or more rates applicable to different countries or groups of countries.
    task force, in new product development
    This task force (or team) is established for a new product idea to shepherd it through the various development stages until it is abandoned or approved for commercialization. The task force is composed of personnel (on loan, full time or part time) from departments such as marketing, research and development, and finance. Other specialists may join the task force as needed. The task force disbands when the project is abandoned or when commercialization is authorized. Comment: The advantage of the task force is that disagreements among functional specialists are more readily resolved when members must work together to achieve goals. Also, they have direct communications with their own functional departments which have new product assignments. The disadvantage is that there may not be enough competent people to staff the task forces assigned to the many new product projects going on at the same time.
    task-oriented behavior
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    TC
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • total cost
  • team selling
    The practice of involving a group of people familiar with the view points and concerns of key decision makers of the customer's organization to sell and service a major account. Comment: This is especially prevalent in the sale of complex industrial products, where a particular salesperson cannot be an expert on all aspects of the purchase process.
    team, as in organization
    A team is an organizational device bringing together persons with different skills to work toward a goal as defined by the manager appointing the team. The manager may be a working member of the team or the team may work on its own, selecting its leader from within the team. The manager, in either case, is responsible for monitoring progress of the team as it works to achieve the goal in a specified period of time. Comment: Teams often are used to solve problems requiring skills and experience of members from various parts of the company, and whose knowledge exceeds that of the manager who might otherwise have to make the decision alone.
    tear sheet
    An advertisement torn from a newspaper or magazine, sent to an agency or advertiser as evidence of insertion.
    technical salesperson
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • sales engineer
  • technological base
    The technical skills and equipment available to a country for converting its resources to a standard of living.
    technological change
    The discovery and application of new products, new and improved machines, tools, equipment, and methods of production.
    technological forecasting
    The prediction of innovations and advances in a particular technology. Both exploratory research methods and normative research methods are used, the former to project future developments based on the past, and the latter to focus more on planning and planned technological innovation.
    technological improvements
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    technological mapping
    The gathering and analysis of information about the direction and timing of possible competitive technological developments.
    technology
    1. (economic definition) A nation's accumulated competence to provide goods and services. 2. (environments definition) The purposeful application of scientific knowledge; an environmental force that consist of inventions and innovations from applied scientific and engineering research.
    technology assessment
    The analysis and evaluation of the potential impact on society of the introduction, modification, or development of a technology, both direct and indirect, intended and unintended.
    technology planning
    The development of plans and procedures to implement technology transfer.
    technology transfer
    The transfer of a capability to use, modify, or adapt a process, among organizations or countries.
    technology-driven innovation
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    Telephone Disclosure and Dispute Resolution Act (1
    An act authorizing the Federal Trade Commission to provide rules to prohibit unfair and deceptive acts and practices in connection with pay-per-call services.
    telephone error
    A type of error resulting from the fact that most people remember an event as having occurred more recently than in fact is the case.
    >>See Also
  • recall loss
  • telephone interview
    A telephone conversation between a representative of the research organization, the interviewer, and a respondent or interviewee.
    telephone sales representative
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • TSR
  • telephone selling
    Selling that involves interacting with customers using a telephone.
    temporary import surcharges
    Import charges to provide additional protection for local industry and in response to balance of payments deficits.
    tender offer
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    terminal values
    One of two major types of values proposed by Milton Rokeach. Terminal values represent preferred end states of being or global goals that consumers are trying to achieve in their lives.
    terms of access
    All the conditions that apply to the importation of goods manufactured in a foreign country such as import duties, import restrictions or quotas, foreign exchange regulations, and preference arrangements.
    terms of purchase
    The conditions in a purchase agreement with a vendor that include the type(s) of discounts available and responsibility for transportation costs.
    Terms of sale
    The conditions in a sales contract with customers including such issues as charges for alterations, delivery, or gift wrapping, or the store's exchange policies.
    territorial allocation
    The rights given to the wholesaler or retailer (by the manufacturer) to sell the manufacturer's product or brand in a defined geographic area that is, at least to some extent, removed, isolated, or protected from other wholesalers and retailers also selling the manufacturer's items.
    territorial rights
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    territory management
    The development and implementation of a strategy for directing selling activities toward customers in a sales territory aimed at maintaining the lines of communications, improving sales coverage, and minimizing wasted time. Territory management includes the allocation of sales calls to customers and the planning, routing, and scheduling of the calls.
    territory potential
    An estimate of the maximum possible sales opportunities that could be realized in a sales territory.
    territory, sales
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • sales territory
  • tertiary package
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    tertiary trade zone
    The outermost ring of a trade area. It includes customers who only occasionally shop at a store or shopping center. It is also known as fringe trade area.
    test market
    The trading area selected to test a company's new or modified product, service, or promotion.
    >>See Also
  • market testing
  • test market-based forecasting models
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    test marketing
    One form of market testing. It usually involves actually marketing a new product in one or several cities. The effort is totally representative of what the firm intends to do later upon national marketing (or regional market rollout). Various aspects of the marketing plan may be tested (e. g., advertising expenditure levels or, less often, product form variants), by using several pairs of cities. Output is a mix of learning, especially a sales and profit forecast. In some areas, test marketing is currently being stretched to include scanner market testing, in which the marketing activity is less than total, but the term is best confined to the full-scale activity.
    test-pretest reliability assessment
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • stability
  • text ad
    An advertisement using text-based hyperlinks.
    text link exchange
    A network where participating sites display text ads in exchange for credits which are converted (using a predetermined exchange rate) into ads to be displayed on other sites.
    Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (1958)
    An act that applies to yarns, fabrics, and household articles made from fiber other than wool, and requires that such products bear labels revealing the amount of each fiber they contain and forbids misbranding of such products.
    The Four Ps
    A traditional view of marketing that divides the function into four, interconnected parts: Product, Price, Promotion, Place (distribution).
    Thematic Apperception Test
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    Themes
    A theme is an overall idea of what a web page is focused on. Search engines determine the theme of a web page through analysis in the algorithm of the density of associated words on a page. Source: SEMPO
    Theory of Reasoned Action (consumer behavior)
    A theory developed by Martin Fishbein that assumes consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative behaviors and choose the one that leads to the most desirable consequences. The theory states that behavior is closely related to behavorial intentions which are in turn the result of attitudes toward performing the behavior and social normative beliefs.
    third party provider
    A for-hire firm that performs logistics service functions such as warehousing and transportation. The majority of these firms customize their offerings to meet individual customer needs.
    third sector
    Collectively, all private nonprofit marketers.
    thumbnail
    A rough sketch of the layout for a piece of print advertising.
    Tier I Search Engines
    The top echelon, or top three, search engines that serve the vast majority of searcher queries. Also referred to as Major Engines, Top Tier Engines or GYM, for Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft Live Search. Source: SEMPO
    Tier II Search Engines
    Smaller, vertical and specialized engines, including general engines, such as Ask.com and AOL; meta-engines that search and display results from other search engines, such as Dogpile; local engines, shopping and comparison engines, and business vertical engines. Tier II Search Engines don?t offer the search query market share or features of the Tier I engines; however, Tier II engines can target specific, niche markets and are usually lower cost. Source: SEMPO
    Tier III Search Engines
    Contextual distribution networks, through which marketers ads appear on pages within the PPC engine's content network, triggered by user web site page views at the moment that contain the advertiser's keyword in its content. Cost is usually through Cost-Per-Thousand-Impressions (CPM) charges, rather than Pay Per Click (PPC). As discussed in Fundamentals coursework, Google's contextual distribution program is called AdSense; Yahoo!'s is called Content Match. Source: SEMPO
    Time Buy
    When an event or event sponsor buys time from the broadcaster and is responsible for selling the advertising. Source: IEG
    time horizon
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    time rate of demand
    The quantity of product that the market will absorb at a particular price per period of time.
    time series
    The historical records of the fluctuations of economic variables.
    time series analysis
    An approach to developing a sales forecast that relies on the analysis of historical data to develop a prediction for the future.
    time series models
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    time utility
    The increased satisfaction created by marketing through making products available at the time consumers want them
    tip sheet
    A summary of material to be covered in a publicity interview or photo shoot
    Title
    Definition
    >>See Also
  • SeeAlso
  • title
    The legal evidence of ownership or right of possession.
    >>See Also
  • price structure
  • Title Sponsor
    The sponsor that has its name incorporated into the name of the sponsored property, e.g., the Allstate Sugar Bowl. Source: IEG
    title tag
    An HTML tag used to define the text in the top line of a Web browser, also used by many search engines as the title of search listings.
    Title Tag
    tag of a web page that contains the page title. The page title should be determined by the relevant contents of that specific web page. The contents of a title tag for a web page is generally displayed in a search engine result as a bold blue underlined hyperlink. Source: SEMPO
    TiVo
    A recently introduced electronic device similar to a VCR or DVD player. The TiVo enables users to record television shows on a computer disk for later playback. The system also includes features to pause live television, and search television schedules for specific program types. Of particular interest to marketers is a TiVo feature that skips commercials while recording television programs.
    TLP
    Acronym for Top Level Page, a reference to the home page, category pages, or product pages that have unique value for the site and so are structured in the top levels of the site directory. Source: SEMPO
    TLP Feed
    Acronym for Top Level Page feed, the often automatic and on-subscription feed of an advertiser's home page or unique category pages. Source: SEMPO
    >>See Also
  • Feeds
  • TOFC
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    token order
    The placing of a small order with the possibility of a larger one in the future.
    ton-mile
    A transportation term denoting the movement of one ton, i.e., 2,000 pounds, one mile.
    toss a wacky
    Term used during the prototype/planning process when a hypothetical scenario invalidates nearly all progress that had been made and marketers must start from the beginning.
    total cost
    Total cost (TC) describes the total economic cost of production and is made up of?variable costs, which vary. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_cost
    total cost (TC) (physical distribution definition)
    In a physical distribution system, total cost includes all the costs of transportation, warehousing, order processing, packaging, etc.
    total cost of goods sold
    The gross cost of goods sold plus alteration room and workroom net cost, if any, less each discount earned on purchases.
    total disposable personal income
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    total dollars invested in stock perspective
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • stock balance
  • total fertility rate
    The number of births that 1,000 women would have in their lifetimes if at each year of age, they experienced birthrates occurring in the specified year.
    total fixed cost
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • fixed cost
  • total
  • total personal income
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • personal income
  • total revenue
    The price per unit multiplied by sales volume and summed over all products and services.
    >>See Also
  • also profits
  • total variable cost
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • variable cost
  • traceable costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • direct costs
  • Trackbacks
    A protocol that allows a blogger to link to posts, often on other blogs, that relate to a selected subject. Blogging software that supports Trackback includes a "TrackBack URL" with each post that displays other blogs that have linked to it. Source: Blog Terms Glossary Tech at Whatis.techtarget.com Source: SEMPO
    tracker
    A model using three waves of survey data to predict 12-month test market sales for a new consumer nondurable product. The approach views potential customers as proceeding sequentially through stages of awareness, initial product trial, and repeat purchase. The overall prediction of sales over time is constructed by predicting the time trend of these three quantities (awareness-trial-repeat) using the survey data (Blattberg and Golanty 1978). The effectiveness of the model's product awareness predictions has been investigated by Mahajan, Muller, and Sharma (1984).
    Tracking URL
    A specially designed and/or unique URL created to track an action or conversion from paid advertising. The URL can include strings that will show what keyword was used, what match type was triggered, and what search engine delivered the visitor. Source: SEMPO
    tractor-trailer
    The power unit and the van of a motor truck. This term usually refers to the two units that are commonly used for over-the-road surface transportation.
    trade acceptance
    A noninterest-bearing bill of exchange or draft covering the sale of goods, drawn by the seller on, and accepted by, the buyer.
    trade advertising
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    trade allowance
    A short-term special offer, made by marketers to channel members as an incentive to stock, feature, or in some way participate in the cooperative promotion of a product.
    trade area
    1. (geography definition) A geographical area containing the customers of a particular firm or group of firms for specific goods or services. 2. (retailing definition) A geo-graphic sector containing potential customers for particular retailer or shopping center.
    >>See Also
  • trading area
  • trade balance
    A sub-balance of a country's balance of payments showing the relationship between total exports and total imports for a given period of time.
    >>See Also
  • trade deficit
  • trade card
    A special card issued to the customer as successive purchases are made. It entitles the holder to a prize or purchase credit when a certain total is reached. It is also called a punch card.
    trade channel
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    trade coupon
    A coupon that may only be redeemed at a particular store or group of stores
    trade credit
    The supplying of goods (by wholesalers and manufacturers) on terms that are intended to permit sale by the retailer before payment is due.
    trade deficit
    the difference between the value of products exported to a country and the products imported from that country over a given period of time.
    >>See Also
  • trade balance
  • trade discount
    The discount allowed to a class of customers (manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers) on a list price before consideration of credit terms. It applies to any allowance granted without reference to the date of payment.
    trade dress
    The total appearance and image of a product including size, texture, shape, and color combination. Duplication of trade dress of another good is actionable under common law and the Lanham Trademark Act
    trade name
    A trademark that is used to identify an organization rather than a product or product line.
    >>See Also
  • logo
  • trade premium
    A prize, usually merchandise, given by jobbers? retailers for their cooperation in achieving sales.
    trade regulation rule
    A rule issued by the Federal Trade Commission that states that particular practices are unfair or deceptive acts within the meaning of Section 5 of the FTC Act. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty-Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act gave the FTC the power to promulgate substantive trade regulation rules, that is, rules having the force of law as opposed to interpretive rules merely stating the FTC's interpretation of its statutory mandate.
    trade sales promotion
    Marketers' activities directed to channel members to encourage them to provide special support or activities for the product or service.
    trade salesperson
    A salesperson employed by the manufacturing firm whose primary responsibility is to sell to channel members.
    trade secret
    According to the 1939 Restatement of Torts, a trade secret may consist of any formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information that is used in one's business and that gives the person an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. A trade secret may be any commercially valuable information, whether in the form of an invention, an industrial or commercial idea, or a compilation of data. Trade secret law is a common law doctrine and varies somewhat from state to state.
    trade show
    1. (sales definition) An exhibition in which a number of manufacturers display their products. 2. (sales promotion definition) A periodic gathering at which manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in a particular industry, or related industries, display their products and provide information for potential buyers (retail, wholesale, or industrial).
    trade up
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    trademark
    A legal term meaning the same as brand. A trademark identifies one seller's product and thus differentiates it from products of other sellers. A trademark also aids in promotion and helps protect the seller from imitations. A trademark may be eligible for registration, as it is in the United States through the Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce. If registered, the trademark obtains additional protection, mainly exclusive use, but special efforts are necessary to keep the registration and the exclusive use.
    Trademark Law Revision Act (1988)
    This act revises the Lanham Trademark Act. It is designed to increase the value of the federal registration system for U.S. companies, to remove the current preference for foreign companies
    Trademarks
    Distinctive symbols, pictures or words that identify a specific product or service. Received through registration with the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. Tier I search engines prohibit bids on trademarks as keywords if the bidder is not the legal owner, though this keyword bid practice is still allowed by Google. Source: SEMPO
    trading area
    A district the size of which is usually determined by the boundaries within which it is economical in terms of volume and cost for a marketing unit or group to sell and/or deliver products. It is also referred to as shopping radius.
    >>See Also
  • trade area
  • trading stamps
    A type of continuity plan in which a consumer collects stamps or certificates issued with each purchase at participating retail stores. Stamps are generally redeemed for prizes from a catalog.
    trading-up
    1. A seller's practice of handling and promoting more expensive or higher-grade merchandise in order to elevate the prestige of the firm. 2. A salesperson's effort to interest a customer in better-grade and more expensive goods than the customer expects to buy.
    Traffic
    Refers to the number of visitors a website receives. It can be determined by examination of web logs. Source: SEMPO
    traffic (customer)
    When applied to retailing, this refers to those people who frequent the store (or the shopping area) within a particular period of time. Traffic may be heavy, light, or medium.
    Traffic Analysis
    The process of analyzing traffic to a web site to understand what visitors are searching for and what is driving traffic to a site. Source: SEMPO
    Traffic Audit Bureau
    An organization that audits freight bills tendered to the buyer of the transportation service for accuracy. If inaccurate, a claim is filed by the payer of the transportation service to recover cost of overcharges.
    traffic item
    A consumer product in demand and with high replacement frequency that regularly brings traffic to a store or department.
    Traffic management
    A corporate function that is responsible for determining the mode of transportation and utilization of transportation equipment as well as general administration of the movement of goods by the firm. A traffic manager usually heads the traffic management function
    traffic manager
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC)
    A shipment of goods in a truck trailer on a rail flatcar. Shipments moving as TOFC receive special rates.
    transaction code
    The unique identifying number that defines the specific data being transmitted via an electronic data interchange transaction. Numbers are assigned to various types of document transactions such as purchase orders, warehouse shipping orders, and motor carrier shipment information.
    transaction set
    The electronic equivalent of common paper forms such as purchase orders, invoices, and receipts.
    transaction value
    The subjectively weighted difference between the buyer's reference price and the actual price to be paid.
    transactions cost analysis
    An approach to analyzing the economics of vertical relationships. The basic premise is that firms will internalize those activities they are able to perform at lower cost, and will rely on the market for those activities for which other providers have an advantage. The costs of transactions are determined by the frequency with which they recur, the environmental uncertainty surrounding them, and the specificity of the assets they require.
    transfer (interdepartmental merchandise)
    An intrafirm transaction accounting for the movement of merchandise from one selling department or location to another, which is a transfer in for the department or other selling unit receiving the goods and a transfer out for the department or location sending the goods.
    transfer pricing
    The pricing of goods and services that are sold to controlled entities of the same organization, e.g., movements of goods and services within a multinational or global corporation.
    transformational advertising
    The advertising that associates product usage with certain feelings, images, or meanings that then transform the experience of using the product. For example, a transformational ad could make the experience of using a product warmer or more exciting.
    transformational leadership
    A leadership style wherein sales managers use inspiration and charisma, seek to intellectually stimulate the salespeople, and treat each salesperson as an individual. The goal of transformational leadership is to move the salespeople beyond their own self interests toward those of the organization. The inspiring and charismatic sales manager can create feelings of extraordinary esteem, affection, admiration, respect, and trust within sales personnel. Intellectually stimulating salespeople entails creating a readiness for changes in salespeople's thinking and encouraging the sales personnel to think of new ways to solve old problems. Treating salespeople as individuals involves establishing and exhibiting genuine concern for each salesperson.
    transit rate
    A rate that allows the through shipment of goods to be interrupted for intermediate processing. Even though the goods are stopped enroute to the ultimate destination, a through rate is charged similar to a rate that would be charged if the goods had not stopped enroute to their ultimate destination
    transition probability matrix
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • Markov model
  • transnational corporation
    A stage of development of the global/transnational corporation.
    transportation
    A marketing function that adds time and place utility to the product by moving it from where it is made to where it is purchased and used. It includes all intermediate steps in the process.
    transportation costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buyers' costs
  • transportation mode
    A specific class of related carriers such as truck, rail, air, or water. It is a generic class of transportation carrier.
    trend analysis
    The use of analytical techniques, such as time series analysis, to discern trends.
    trend extrapolation
    The projection of patterns identified in data about the past into the future.
    trial
    A psychological term denoting the number of a practice run, such as a 5 trial learning experience, or a series of repetitions of a learning experience. It also is used to imply a sampling of a product before repurchase.
    trial close
    An attempt made by the salesperson to close the sale.
    Tribal Marketing
    Term coined by First Matter to refer to the creation of affinity groups for commercial ends. Perhaps the most notable and successful contemporary example is Harley-Davidson, which has coupled the sale of motorcycles and peripherals to the creation of weekend motorcycle clubs and an entire way of life built around Harley-Davidson products. Tribal marketing works best when it is constantly reinforced with icons. Source: IEG
    trick banner
    A banner ad that attempts to trick people into clicking, often by imitating an operating system message.
    trickle down theory
    The belief that clothing fashions trickle down from the higher socioeconomic classes to the lower classes as consumers attempt to emulate individuals with greater social status. Research evidence generally does not support a trickle down theory. The diffusion of fashion appears to trickle across social classes rather than trickle down or up.
    truckload
    The shipment by truck of a full load. A truckload usually qualifies for lower freight rate than smaller shipments.
    true panel
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • panel true
  • Trusted Feed
    Also known as Paid Inclusion, a trusted feed is a fee-based custom crawl service offered by some search engines. These results appear in the "organic search results" of the engine. Typically, the fee is based on a "cost per click," depending on the category of site content. It has been called a "Trusted Feed" due to the ability to actually alter the content in the feed, without changing the existing website. Source: SEMPO
    >>See Also
  • Paid Inclusion
  • Truth-in-Lending Act (1968)
    This act requires full disclosure of terms and conditions of finance charges.
    TSR
    An abbreviation that is used for a telephone sales representative.
    turnkey operation
    Also called system selling, this is a complete system solution, in which the seller provides the buyer with a complete working operation, including all equipment, assembly, operating expenses, personnel training, and the like. It is common in foreign licensing in which a firm provides experts to set up a foreign company, ultimately turning the operation over to the host entirely.
    turnover table
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    Twig
    A store (smaller than a branch) that specializes in a particular category or few categories of merchandise when the firm does not believe a wider offering in that market is reasonable-e.g., a home furnishings twig.
    two column tariff
    A system of tariffs in which the initial single column of duties is supplemented by a second column of duties that shows reduced rates agreed through tariff negotiations with other countries.
    two step flow of communication
    The belief that the process of influence of communications material is not directly from the communicator to the audience or interpreters, but rather influence is a two step process from the mass communications, such as advertising, to the opinion leader in the group and from the opinion leader to the other individuals.
    two-stage area sampling
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • area sampling
  • two-stage cluster sampling
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • cluster sample
  • two-tier affiliate program
    An affiliate program structure whereby affiliates earn commissions on their conversions as well as conversions of Web masters they refer to the program.
    TXT
    Text File (file.txt) Source: Lazworld
    TXT//AD
    Text ads as mobile device text messages. Source: SEMPO
    tying clause
    A limitation in a contract requiring price maintenance or exclusive purchase of certain products from one party by the other.
    type face
    Any one of a wide variety of systematically designed styles or patterns used to present letters of the alphabet, numbers, and punctuation marks. A font is a particular point size and style variation (such as italic) with a given type face.
    >>See Also
  • typesetting
  • Type I error
    The rejection of a null hypothesis when it is true; it is also known as alpha error.
    type I Fisher-Tippett extreme value distribution
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • logit model
  • Type II error
    The failure to reject a null hypothesis when it is false; it is also known as beta error.
    type membership
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • stereotype
  • typesetting
    The process of choosing appropriate type faces (or fonts), reproducing the headlines and other text in an appropriate size (or point size), and placing the type in the proper place on the page.