Dictionary

Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in 1995, we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever-evolving marketing profession.

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Term
Definition
See Also
IASAPI_rewrite
ISAPI_rewrite is a powerful URL manipulation engine based on regular expressions. It acts mostly like Apache's mod_rewrite, but is designed specifically for Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS). ISAPI_rewrite is an ISAPI filter written in pure C/C++ so it is extremely fast. ISAPI_rewrite gives you the freedom to go beyond the standard URL schemes and develop your own scheme. Source: http://www.isapirewrite.com Source: SEMPO
IBRD
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is a global non-profit corporation formed to oversee a select range of Internet technical management functions currently managed by the U.S. Government, or by its contractors and volunteers. Source: Lazworld
ICC
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
ICS
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
id
The part of the personality, according to Freudian theory, that reflects the basic physiological and sexual drives (libido) of an individual demanding immediate gratification.
IDA
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
idea generation
That stage of the new product development cycle in which ideas are sought for new products. These ideas may be created in-house or sought from outsiders. This stage is often called concept generation rather than idea generation, because the new product is but a concept at this time. The activity of generation often follows some stated or implied strategic focus, and it precedes the concept evaluation stage.
idea screening
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
ideal self concept
The knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions people have about the self they would be like if they were perfect or ideal.
identification
Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
>>See Also
  • ego defenses
  • IFRAME
    ?IFrame (from inline frame) is an HTML element which makes it possible to embed another HTML document inside the main document. The size of the IFrame is specified in the surrounding HTML page, so that the surrounding page can already be presented in the browser while the IFrame is still being loaded. The IFrame behaves much like an inline image, and the user can scroll it out of view. On the other hand, the IFrame can contain its own scroll bar, independent of the surrounding page's scroll bar. Source: Wikipedia Source: SEMPO
    IIA
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    image
    The consumer perception of a product, institution, brand, business, or person that may or may not corre-spond with "reality" or "actuality." For marketing purposes the "image of what is" may be more important than "what actually is."
    IMF
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    imitation effect
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • diffusion model
  • imitative strategy
    An imitative strategy relies on the designs of other companies in creating its designs. The imitative company also may base its accompanying product marketing strategy on the strategy of the market leader or pioneer. Imitative strategies frequently are used in the fashion goods, furniture, entertainment, and food products industries.
    impact evaluation
    In social marketing, the evaluation of program outcomes in terms of original objectives. This also is known as outcome evaluation and summative evaluation.
    imperfect competition
    1. (economic definition) A market situation in which many sellers, each of whom has a relatively small market share, compete for consumer patronage. The term originated with English economist Joan Robinson in the 1930s. 2. (environments definition) The market conditions in which firms have some control, but not necessarily absolute control, over price, by such techniques as differentiating products and limiting supply. Monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition are examples of imperfect competition.
    implementation
    The stage in the strategic market planning process in which an action program is designed to meet the strategic objective(s) using the available resources and given the existing constraints. The action program is intended to be both a translation of a strategic plan into operational terms as well as a means by which the strategic performance may be monitored and controlled. The action plan has three major components: (1) specific tasks-what will be done including the specification of the marketing mix to be employed; (2) time horizon-when it will be done; and (3) resource allocation and budgeting-attaching a dollar figures to each income-and expense-related activity and allocating capital funds.
    implementation of the sales program
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    implications
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • SPIN
  • implicit alternative
    An alternative answer to a question that is not expressed in the options.
    implicit cost
    The use value of an economic resource that is not explicitly charged on accounting records of a firm-e.g., interest on owner's capital investment.
    implicit price index (IPI)
    A relative measure of changes in the general price level of goods and services produced by an economy during a given time period.
    implied warranty
    A warranty (promise of performance) that is extended to the customer but unstated. It usually is assumed from common practice in the trade, or suggested by statements made about the product by the seller.
    import agent
    A manufacturers' agent who specializes in the import trade.
    >>See Also
  • export agent
  • import broker
    A broker who specializes in international marketing.
    >>See Also
  • export agent
  • import commission house
    A broker who specializes in international marketing.
    >>See Also
  • export agent
  • import license
    An instrument of government control that regulates access to foreign exchange and the quantity and/ or value of imports.
    Impression
    One view or display of an ad. Ad reports list total impressions per ad, which tells you the number of times your ad was served by the search engine when searchers entered your keywords (or viewed a content page containing your keywords). Source: SEMPO
    improved product introduction
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    impulse buying
    A purchase behavior that is assumed to be made without prior planning or thought. Often, it is claimed, impulse buying involves an emotional reaction to the stimulus object (product, packaging, point-of-purchase display, or whatever) in addition to the simple acquisition act.
    impulse product
    A convenience product (good or service) that is bought on the spur of the moment, without advance planning or serious consideration at the time, and often by the stimulus of point-of-sale promotion or observation.
    impulse purchase
    1. (consumer behavior definition) A purchase typically made in-store with little or no decision making effort. 2. (retailing definition) An unplanned purchase by a customer.
    impulse-intercept merchandise
    Merchandise purchased on impulse, when the customer happens to see it in the store, prior to which the customer had no perceived need.
    in supplier
    A firm currently supplying the company or currently on its approved vendor list.
    in transit
    A condition that exists when merchandise has been shipped from the vendor and has not yet arrived at the buyer's receiving dock.
    Incentive
    An inducement (money, premiums, prizes) offered by sellers to reward or motivate salespeople, channel members, and/or consumers to sell/purchase their products or services.
    incentive compensation
    Sales compensation based on performance.
    incentive pay
    Any compensation plan other than straight salary wherein the salesperson is given encouragement to sell more. Examples are straight commission (the strongest incentive); a salary plus a small percentage of net sales, etc.
    incentive plan
    An event offering rewards or inducements to stimulate the salesforce or channel members to achieve predetermined sales, profit, distribution, or other goals.
    incentive travel
    A form of sales promotional activity in which large companies reward their salespeople, agents, distributors, or dealers with trips to interesting places for attaining a specific objective, usually sales volume (or purchase commitments) in excess of some predetermined quota.
    incentivized traffic
    Visitors who have received some form of compensation for visiting a site (i.e. points, discounts, etc.).
    incidence
    A percentage of the population or group that qualifies for inclusion in the sample using some criteria.
    incidence of taxation
    The final resting place of the burden of the tax. The incidence may be on the person who originally pays the tax, or on someone else to whom the tax may be shifted.
    Income
    A flow of money, goods, and benefits to a person or an organization.
    income differential
    The difference in income levels among people of various categories, such as different jobs, geographic areas, age classes, sexes, races, and the like.
    income effect
    1. (economic definition) The change in patterns of consumption for a product given consumers have an increase in real income. 2. (environments definition) The increase or decrease in a consumer's real income as a result of the change in the price of a good or service.
    income maintenance
    The policies designed to raise or maintain the income levels of designated groups of individuals.
    income sensitivity of demand
    The relationship between a real increase in disposable personal income and the corresponding change in consumption
    incomplete assortment
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • close-out
  • incomplete stock
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • close-out
  • inconsistent stimulus
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    increasing entry costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • market defense
  • increasing investments
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • market defense
  • increasing usage by present users
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    incremental productivity method
    A method of determining sales force size by adding sales representatives as long as the incremental profit produced by their addition exceeds the incremental costs. The method recognizes that there will probably be diminishing returns with the addition of salespeople.
    incremental sales
    Units of the product sold to retailers or consumers through a sales promotion effort over and above the amount that would have been sold in the absence of the promotional deal.
    Incremental Value Added
    A measurement technique IEG uses with corporate clients which compares the return a company earns from sponsorship above and beyond what it would expect from equal investment in other media. For example, if a credit card company is going to conduct a direct mail campaign, its expectation might be to break even. So if the company spent $100,000 to buy lists and print the pieces and pay for the postage and the campaign brought in $100,000 worth of new accounts, the effort would have been considered a success. If it's $100,000 sponsorship generated $150,000 in new accounts, IVA would be 50 percent. The sponsorship is thus adding incremental economic value. Source: IEG
    incrementalism
    The notion that strategies are the outcome of a series of piecemeal and minor tactical decisions in response to problems and opportunities rather than through systematic, formal, prepared plans. Incrementalism holds that organizations are more reactive than proactive.
    independence from irrelevant alternatives
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    independent carrier
    An owner-operator or individual trucker who provides line-haul service for others. Under current transportation regulations, an independent carrier can make business arrangements with common carriers, contract carriers, exempt carriers, and private carriers.
    independent sector
    Collectively, all private nonprofit marketers.
    independent store
    A retail outlet owned individually; not a chain store or branch store.
    Index
    A search engine's "index" refers to the amount of documents found by a search engines crawler on the web. Source: SEMPO
    Index of Consumer Sentiment
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    index of retail saturation
    A technique normally used in larger areas to aid retailers' choice among possibilities for location of new outlets. It offers better insight into location possibilities than a simple descriptive analysis of market potential because it reflects both the demand side and the supply side; i.e., the number of existing outlets in the area and the number and/or income of consumers.
    Indexability
    Also known as crawlability and spiderability. Indexability refers to the potential of a web site or its contents to be crawled or "indexed" by a search engine. If a site is not "indexable," or if a site has reduced indexability, it has difficulties getting its URLs included. Source: SEMPO
    indirect channel
    A channel whereby goods and services are sold indirectly from producer through independent middlemen to final users.
    >>See Also
  • direct channel
  • indirect costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • contribution
  • indirect denial
    A method used by salespeople to respond to prospect objections by denying the validity of the objection but attempting to soften the response by first agreeing that the issue raised in the objection is important.
    indirect exporting
    Sales to export intermediaries who in turn sell to overseas customers. The indirect exporter has no direct contact with overseas customers.
    indirect traceable costs
    Costs that are not incurred solely for a particular activity but, through reasonably objective means, can be traced, in part, to the activity for which they are incurred.
    individual brand
    The brand identity given to an individual product, as separate from other products in the market and from other items in the product's own line. A trademark.
    individual preference models
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • POSSE
  • industrial advertising
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    industrial buying behavior
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    industrial buying influences
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    industrial demand
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    industrial distributor
    A wholesaler who sells primarily to business or institutional customers who purchase items for business use rather than for resale.
    industrial market
    The industrial market (also called the producer market or business market) is the set of all individuals and organizations that acquire goods and services that enter into the production of other products or services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others. The major types of industries making up the industrial market (business market) are agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; mining; manufacturing; construction and transportation; communication and public utilities; banking, finance, and insurance; and services.
    industrial market segmentation
    The process of separating an industrial market (business market) into groups of customers or prospects such that the members of each resulting group are more like the other members of that group than they are like members of other segments.
    industrial marketing
    The marketing of goods and services to industrial markets (business markets).
    industrial products
    Goods that are destined to be sold primarily for use in producing other goods or rendering services as contrasted with goods destined to be sold primarily to the ultimate consumer. They include accessory equipment; installations; component parts; maintenance, repair, and operating items and supplies; raw materials; and fabricating materials. The distinguishing characteristic of industrial goods is the purpose for which they are to be used, i.e., in carrying on business or industrial activities rather than for consumption by individual ultimate consumers or resale to them. The category also includes merchandise destined for use in carrying on various types of institutional enterprises. Relatively few goods are exclusively industrial products. The same article may, under one set of circumstances, be an industrial good, and under other conditions, a consumer good. (See also business services, installations, parts, semi-manufactured goods, and supplies.)
    industrial salesperson
    A salesperson who is primarily responsible for making sales of goods and services to businesses and institutions such as hospitals.
    industrial user
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buying roles
  • industrialized country
    A country whose 1987 GNP per capita ranged from $2,500 to $8,499. The industrialized country displays the following characteristics: (1) degree of urbanization increases, literacy levels are very high, often exceeding 85 percent, and the population engaged in agriculture drops substantially; (2) wage levels rise sharply, and ownership of every type of consumer durable, transportation, leisure time, and housing products, rises sharply; and (3) the need for labor saving methods creates new industrial product markets in existing industries and development creates entirely new industries.
    industry
    A set of companies that vie for market share of a given product.
    industry attractiveness
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    industry life cycle
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    inelastic demand
    1. A situation in which a cut in price yields such a small increase in quantity taken by the market that total revenue decreases. 2. A situation in which the percentage of quantity taken in the market "stretches" less than the percentage drop in price.
    inelastic supply
    1. A situation in which the quantity offered to the market increases less than proportionately to an increase in price. 2. A situation in which the percentage of goods offered to the market "stretches" less than the percentage increase in price.
    >>See Also
  • elastic supply
  • infant industry
    An industry that justifies a national policy of protection from global competition on the grounds that it needs time to get established. Infant industry protection is always temporary.
    inferences
    The beliefs consumers form to represent relationships that are not explicit in the environment; inferences are largely influenced by prior knowledge in memory.
    inferior goods
    The less expensive substitutes for products that consumers prefer.
    inflation
    1. (economic definition) An economic condition characterized by a continuous upward movement of the general price level. 2. (global marketing definition) An increase in prices in a country that results in a decline in the purchasing power of consumers.
    in-flow
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • cash flow
  • influence strategy
    A means of communication used by a channel member's personnel in applying its power in specific channel relationships.
    influence, interpersonal, in the buying center
    The influence of one individual member of the buying center on an other is the change in behavioral and/ or psychological states of other buying center members brought about by the perception of each other's power in an organizational buying situation.
    influencer
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buying roles
  • influences, buying center
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    In-Focus Coverage
    Amount of time sponsor identification is visible to TV viewing audience during event broadcast. Source: IEG
    infomercial
    The use of a program-length time period to advertise products and services. This approach often includes a direct response offer to sell the advertised items directly to the public.
    informal group
    The interpersonal and inter-group relationships that develop within a formal group or organization. This might include cliques, "coffee colleagues" or friendship circles. An informal group tends to form when the formal organization fails to satisfy important needs of the members.
    information control
    A term applied to studies using questionnaires and concerning the amount and accuracy of the information that can be obtained from respondents.
    information processing
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    information processing theory
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    information search
    1. (industrial definition) The process by which a buyer seeks to identify the most appropriate supplier(s) once a need has been recognized. The information search process may vary based upon variables such as organizational size and buying situation. 2. (consumer behavior definition ) Intentional exposure to information. Before buying a camera, for example, the consumer might be attracted to and seek out advertisements for cameras, read articles in photography magazines, and turn to Consumers' Reports. Seeking the advice of an expert, knowledgeable acquaintance, or salesperson can be involved.
    information seeking
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    informational advertising
    Advertising that presents factual, usually verifiable, information about the product or product usage.
    informative label
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    informed stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    infrastructure
    A nation's systems, facilities, and installations such as road and highway networks for transportation and distribution.
    in-house agency
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • house agency
  • initial markon
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • initial markup
  • initial markup
    The difference between the merchandise cost and the original retail price placed on the goods; expressed as a percentage of the retail value.
    initiating structure
    A leadership style wherein sales managers closely direct their sales personnel; clarify their roles for them; and plan, coordinate, problem solve, criticize, and pressure them to perform. A sales manager using this leadership style tends to exhibit task-oriented behavior.
    initiator
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buying roles
  • In-Kind Sponsorship
    Payment (full or partial) of sponsorship fee in goods or services rather than cash. Source: IEG
    inner-directedness
    A system of values prevalent in production-oriented societies in which members of the society are taught specific value systems dependent on self-sufficiency and inner values. This was first developed by David Riesman in his monograph The Lonely Crowd and later adapted by Stanford Research Institute in its VALS program.
    innovation
    In the marketing literature, innovation implies the introduction of a new product, idea, or service into the market place. According to Robertson, it involves a new product that is very different from the established products or at least perceived to be different by consumers in the relevant market segment. New products can be referred to as continuous innovations such as Crest spearmint toothpaste or Michelob light beer. Or they can be discontinuous innovations, a completely new product such as the electric light bulb or perhaps the computer.
    innovation effect
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • diffusion model
  • innovation stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    innovative imitation
    The strategy or practice whereby a firm's new products are emulative of others already on the market but are significantly different in at least one aspect. The product differs from pure imitation, in which the new item is a "me-too" product or a total copy, and from an emulative product because the difference here is significant.
    innovativeness
    1. (product development definition) When applied to a buyer, the extent to which that person or firm is willing to accept the risks of early purchase of an innovation. 2. (consumer behavior definition) A personality trait designed to account for the degree to which a consumer accepts and purchases new products and services.
    innovators
    Firms or persons that are innovative. The term is often applied (1) to those who are the first to create a new type of product, or (2) to those who are the first to adopt a new product that has been introduced into the marketplace. Innovators are often thought to be opinion leaders.
    in-pack premium
    A small, often low value, gift placed inside a product package to encourage purchase or reward the purchaser.
    input evaluation measure
    An objective measure of the amount of effort or resources expended by the sales force, including the number of sales calls; amount of time and time utilization; expenses; and non-selling activities such as letters written, number of phone calls made, and number of customer complaints received.
    input-output models
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    inquiry
    A customer's request for additional information about a product or service. Comment: Inquiries are often generated through advertising in which a customer can request additional information by mailing a card or coupon.
    >>See Also
  • lead
  • sales)
  • inquiry test
    A method of testing the effectiveness of an advertising message and/or media vehicles based on the number of customer inquiries that can be directly attributed to the message by means of coupons attached to the ads or special telephone numbers or code numbers used in ads or commercials.
    inside salesperson
    A salesperson who performs selling activities over the telephone at the employer's location. Comment: An inside salesperson typically answers questions and takes orders; however, there is a growing trend for an inside salesperson to actively solicit orders.
    installation costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • buyers\' costs
  • installations
    These are non-portable major industrial products such as furnaces and assembly lines that are bought, installed, and used to produce other goods or services. They are often grouped with accessory equipment to comprise capital goods. They also are called heavy equipment.
    installed base
    The number of units of a durable product in use at the customers' premises. The term is used for equipment such as computers and copiers.
    installment account
    The resulting charge account of a customer who has purchased on an installment-credit plan; i.e., pays a down payment and specified amount per month including a service charge. The customer has the use of the merchandise during the life of the installment account.
    installment sale
    A sale of real or personal property for which a series of equal payments is made over a period of weeks or months.
    installment-credit plan
    A plan enabling consumers to pay their total purchase price (less down payment) in equal installment payments over a specified time period.
    institutional advertising
    An advertising message or advertising campaign that has the primary purpose of promoting the name, image, personnel, or reputation of a company, organization, or industry. When employed by a company or corporation it is sometimes called corporate advertising.
    institutional boundary
    A market area that is defined by governments (e.g., tariffs, post office districts) or by firms in order to restrict spatial competition (e.g., dealerships).
    institutional market
    The market consisting of churches, museums, private hospitals, schools and colleges, clubs, and many other organizations that have objectives that differ basically from those of traditional business organizations.
    institutional marketing
    The marketing of goods and services to the institutional market.
    institutional signage
    The signage that describes the merchandising mission, customer service policies, and other messages on behalf of the retail institution.
    Institutionalization
    In social marketing, creating the conditions under which a behavior-change program is continued beyond its initial campaign. Comment: Institutionalization is of major concern to agencies funding social marketing programs in developing countries that wish to terminate program support but see the effects continue.
    in-store coupon
    A certificate redeemable only at one specific retail store or chain. The coupon generally is distributed through newspaper advertisements, flyers, or within the store.
    in-store marketing
    The marketing dollars spent inside the store in the form of store design, merchandising, visual displays, or in-store promotions.
    instrument variation
    Any and all changes in the measuring device used in an experiment that might account for differences in two or more measurements.
    instrumental conditioning
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    instrumental function of attitudes
    A function of attitudes that provides the maximum benefits and the minimum costs to the individual. Instrumental attitudes are those that provide the individual with more rewards than punishments. These attitudes are usually based on attributes of the attitude object and thus the instrumental function is highly similar to Fishbein's learning theory of attitudes. It also is referred to as utilitarian function of attitudes or adjustive function of attitudes.
    instrumental values
    One of two major types of values proposed by Milton Rokeach. Instrumental values represent preferred modes of conduct or preferred patterns of behavior.
    >>See Also
  • terminal values
  • instrumentality
    A salesperson's estimate of the likelihood that higher levels of performance will lead to his or her receiving greater rewards. In essence, it is the linkage between salesperson performance and attainment of various rewards. For example, a salesperson might estimate that there is a 25 percent probability (instrumentality) of his or her receiving a pay raise if he or she achieves quota. Instrumentalities can influence a salesperson's level of motivation.
    integer programming
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    integrated development
    A process of combining diverse organizational talents and functional groups to support a new product's development. Also called cross-functional integration, integrated development requires regular, high-quality communication and problem- solving among the different contributors to the new product development process.
    integrated division
    This division contains both marketing and production functions, thereby providing the division manager coordination and control of the principal factors affecting profits.
    integrated marketing communications
    A planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time.
    integrated service provider
    A for-hire firm that performs a range of logistics service activities such as warehousing, transportation, and other functional activities that constitute a total service package. The majority of these firms customize the service package to meet individual customer needs.
    integration
    The acquisition or development of businesses that are related to the company's current businesses as a means of increasing sales and/or profit and gaining greater control. There are three forms of integration: (1) backward integration-in which the company acquires one or more of its suppliers or develops its own supply capability in order to gain more profit and/or control; (2) forward integration-in which the company acquires one or more of its buyers (e.g., wholesalers or retailers when the buyer is not the "ultimate buyer"); and (3) horizontal integration-in which the company acquires one or more of its competitors.
    intellectual property
    Abstract forms of "property" such as patents, copyrights, and trademarks, as distinct from the concrete form of real property.
    intelligence gathering and analysis
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • public affairs
  • intending to buy stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    intensive distribution
    A form of market coverage in which a product is distributed through all available wholesalers or retailers who stock and sell the product in a given market area.
    intention
    1. (marketing research definition) Anticipated or planned future behavior. 2. (industrial definition) The decision to acquire specific goods and/or services under given terms and conditions.
    >>See Also
  • buyer intention
  • interaction with consumer groups
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    interactive agency
    A advertising/marketing agency offering a mix of Web design/development, Internet advertising/marketing, or e-business/e-commerce consulting.
    interbusiness alliance
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • keiretsu
  • intercept merchandise
    The merchandise that customers do not specifically go to a store to buy, but buy because the retailer intercepts them in the course of their store visit activities.
    intercept store
    A store that intercepts consumers passing by it.
    interdepartmental merchandise transfer
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    interest
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    interested stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    interindustry competition
    The rivalry among sellers in different industries to achieve such objectives as gaining a larger share of the market, increasing profits, or increasing sales, by urging consumers to substitute a seller's products or services for their current choices. Examples are substituting cotton clothing for synthetics, or fish for steaks.
    intermediary
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • middleman
  • intermodal transportation
    The movement of goods that combines two or more modes of transportation such as truck and rail to maximize the benefits of both modes while minimizing their drawbacks. For example, the combination of rail and motor carriage utilizes the flexibility of motor carriers and the low line-haul cost of rail.
    internal communication
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • public affairs
  • internal data
    The data that originate within the organization for which the research is being done.
    >>See Also
  • external data
  • internal factors
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    internal marketing
    Marketing to employees of an organization to ensure that they are effectively carrying out desired programs and policies.
    internal stimulus
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    internal validity
    One criterion by which an experiment is evaluated; the criterion focuses on obtaining evidence demonstrating that the variation in the criterion variable was the result of exposure to the treatment or experimental variable.
    internal vulnerabilities
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • risk analysis
  • international advertising
    The advertising phenomenon that involves the transfer of advertising appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stores, and video and film segments (or spots) from one country to another.
    International Bank for Reconstruction and Developm
    A bank set up under the Bretton Woods Agreement in December 1945 for two purposes: (1) to help finance the rebuilding of war-devastated areas and to aid in the advancement of less developed countries; and (2) to provide technical advice to governments or other borrowers, including general economic surveys for governments wishing to study resources and to plan long-range programs of development.
    international channel of distribution
    The structure of intracompany organization units and extracompany agents and dealers, wholesale and retail, through which a commodity, product,
    international corporation
    An early stage in the development of a global/ transnational corporation. An international corporation may operate in many countries, but it does not have a global vision or strategy.
    International Court of Justice
    The principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It settles disputes between the sovereign nations of the world but not between private citizens.
    International Development Association (IDA)
    An affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development formed in 1960 to help developing countries by extending financial aid on subsidized terms. It helps countries whose credit standing does not enable thetas to borrow from the bank, and it is prepared to finance a wide variety of projects.
    international law
    The set of rules and principles that states and nations consider binding upon themselves.
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    A multinational organization whose objective is to promote international financial cooperation and to coordinate the stabilization of exchange rates and the establishment of freely convertible currencies.
    international product cycle
    A model developed by Professor Raymond Vernon that shows the relationship of production, consumption, and trade over the life cycle of a product. Based on empirical data for the pre-1967 era, the model showed how the location of production shifted from the United States to other advanced countries and then to less developed countries.
    international retailing
    Retailing activity by an organization that reaches across national boundaries.
    international trade product life cycle
    A trade cycle model that suggests that many products go through a cycle in which high income, mass consumption countries are initially exporters, then lose their export markets, and finally become importers of the product.
    Internet
    General term used to describe a global network of computers used to transmit information. The most familiar aspect of the Internet is the World Wide Web, which consists of various interlinked Web sites. The Internet was originally developed by the U.S. military as a backup communications system in case of nuclear war. In the early 1990s, the Internet was made publicly available and its usage has since grown exponentially.
    interpersonal factors
    Those influences or forces on the consumer due to other individuals within the individual's life space or sphere of activity. Wearing a tie when others are doing so would be an example, as would a person purchasing perfume to impress someone else.
    inter-selling
    The process of selling between and among departments to facilitate larger transactions and to make it more convenient for the customer to accessorize.
    >>See Also
  • cross selling
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) (1887)
    The first independent regulatory agency established, the ICC is required to "foster the preservation and development of a national transportation system adequate to meet the needs of the commerce of the United States, of the postal service, and of the national defense."
    Interstitial
    Means "something in between" and is a page that is inserted in the normal flow of content between a user and a site. An Interstitial Ad is an "intrusive" ad unit that is spontaneously delivered without specifically being requested by a user. Blocking the site behind it, Interstitial Ads are designed to grab consumers' attention for the few nanoseconds it takes them to close the window. Interstitial's can be full pages or small daughter windows. Also referred to as "pop-ups." Source: Lazworld
    intertype competition
    The competition between different types of firms selling the same product. For example, automobile tires may be sold through discount stores; gasoline service stations; department stores; tire, battery, and accessory dealers; and independent garages.
    interurbia
    A large urban area resulting from the mingling and eventual uniting
    interval scale
    A measurement in which the numbers assigned to the attributes of the objects or classes of objects legitimately allow comparison of the size of the differences among and between objects.
    intraindustry competition
    The rivalry among sellers of the same product or service to achieve such objectives as increasing sales, market share, or profits.
    Intranet
    Intranets are private networks, usually maintained by corporations for internal communications, which use Internet -- usually web -- protocols, software and servers. They are relatively cheap, fast, and reliable networking and information warehouse systems that link offices around the world. They make it is easy for corporate users to communicate with one another, and to access the information resources of the Internet. Source: Lazworld
    intrapreneurship
    The practice of entrepreneurship within a large firm. Intrapreneurship is a style of management thought to be independent, risk-taking, innovative, daring, and typical of the style used in successful start-up firms. In some situations intrapreneurship requires that the entrepreneurial unit be segregated or isolated from the other units, thus permitting the unique style of management.
    intratype competition
    The conflict (or competition) between firms of the same type-e.g., a department store competes with another department store; a supermarket competes with another supermarket.
    intrinsic reward
    A reward that comes from within the individual rather than externally. Practicing the piano for the sheer joy of learning and creating music rather than for a cash reward is an example.
    introduction approach
    A method for approaching prospects in which salespeople simply state their name and the name of their company.
    introduction stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    introductory stage of product life cycle
    The first stage of the product life cycle. The new product is introduced to the market, sales are slow, promotion is usually heavy, costs are accumulated, profits are frequently negative, and expectation is focused on determining when and if the product will soon enter the second (growth) stage of the cycle.
    invention
    A new device, process, etc., that has been created. The invention can be in either physical or conceptual form. Preexisting knowledge is combined in a new way to yield something that did not heretofore exist. It is not to be confused with a product innovation, which is an invention that has been converted by future management and process development into a marketable product. Invention is thought to require both engineering science and art, but scientific findings and artistic creations, alone, though they may be original, may not constitute inventions.
    invention pricing policy
    A pricing policy in which the company neither fixes a single price worldwide nor remains aloof from subsidiary pricing decisions, but strikes an intermediate position.
    inventory
    1. Goods or merchandise available for resale. 2. The value of merchandise on hand at cost or retail.
    inventory control
    The procedures used to ensure that desired inventory levels are maintained. Most procedures are based on either perpetual or periodic review.
    inventory control-based promotion models
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    inventory cushion
    The allowance in the inventory made for uncertainties in sales or deliveries, often added to the basic low stock to provide for conditions neither controllable nor accurately predictable.
    inventory management
    The process of acquiring and maintaining a proper assortment of merchandise while keeping ordering, shipping, handling, and other related costs in check.
    inventory overage
    The value of physical inventory in excess of the book value.
    inventory policy
    A firm's standard practice regarding the level of inventory to be maintained. For example, it may be customary to hold a 60- or 90-day supply.
    inventory stock shortage
    The value of the book inventory in excess of the actual physical inventory, often expressed as a percentage of net sales. It is the amount of theft, breakage, sales in excess of amounts charged customers, and errors in record keeping. It may be either clerical (caused by miscalculation), or physical (caused by misappropriation of goods).
    inventory turnover
    1. (physical distribution definition) The number of times average inventory is sold during a specified time period (usually one year). 2. (retailing definition) The number of times per year the retailer sells its average inventory.
    >>See Also
  • stock turnover
  • investment
    Any outlay of cash flow in the near term that is expected to generate cash inflows in future periods. Typically some or all of the cash outlay is capitalized on the balance sheet of the firm.
    investment strategy
    A strategy that specifies (1) the requirements for funds needed to achieve the competitive advantage, and (2) the outcomes expected from the allocation of these funds. The broad investment choices are build, defend, or harvest market position.
    invisible assets
    Assets that are hard to copy, very time-consuming to develop, capable of many uses, and unattainable with money alone. Invisible assets are mainly embodied in factors such as the superior skills of people, corporate culture, advanced technical design and production skills, and mastery of the dominant technologies. These assets may be acquired through first-mover advantages, accumulated experience, continued investment in training, and insightful nurturing of strengths.
    involvement
    The degree of personal relevance a consumer perceives a product, brand, object, or behavior to have. High involvement products are seen as having important personal consequences or as useful for achieving important personal goals. Low involvement products are not linked to important consequences or goals.
    IP address
    Internet Protocol address. Every system connected to the Internet has a unique IP address, which consists of a number in the format A.B.C.D where each of the four sections is a decimal number from 0 to 255. Most people use Domain Names instead and the resolution between Domain Names and IP addresses is handled by the network and the Domain Name Servers. With virtual hosting, a single machine can act like multiple machines (with multiple domain names and IP addresses). Source: Lazworld
    IP Address Lookup
    The process of determining a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address. DNSstuff is one free program to look up an IP address (http://www.dnsstuff.com). Source: SEMPO
    IPI
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    IPTV
    Acronym for Internet Protocol Television, which delivers digital television service using the Internet Protocol over a network. IPTV delivery may be through a high capacity, high speed broadband connection. Compared to traditional broadcast and cable television, IPTV may offer new venues for PPC search advertisers through program interfaces and stored individual preferences. Source: Wikipedia Source: SEMPO
    irrational appeals
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    ISP (Internet Service Provider)
    A business that provides access to the Internet. Its services are available to either individuals or companies, and include a dial-in interface with the Internet, software supply and often web site and intranet design. There are currently over 3,000 ISPs in the U.S. alone. It's a growth business, and as a result pricing is highly competitive, so shop around. Source: Lazworld
    item merchandising
    The special planning and control effort employed to discover and take advantage of the sales opportunities afforded by items that are in greater consumer demand.
    item nonresponse
    A source of nonsampling error that arises when a respondent agrees to an interview but refuses or is unable to answer specific questions.
    itemized rating scale
    A scale distinguished by the fact that individuals must indicate their ratings of an attribute or object by selecting one from among a limited number of categories that best describe their position on the attribute or object.