Dictionary

Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in 1995, we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever-evolving marketing profession.

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Term
Definition
See Also
G.U.I.
Stands for "Graphical User Interface." Means a visual representation of the functional code. Or, is a way for the average web user to interface with a database, program, etc. Source: SEMPO
galley proof
A copy of the individual pages of an ad, brochure, poster, or other printed material used for final proofreading of the text before final negatives are made for the printing process.
>>See Also
  • blueline
  • gama distribution
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    game
    A consumer sales promotion technique that involves collection, matching, or use of skill to complete a project or activity with the goal of a prize or reward for the player.
    game theoretic models
    Models that use game theory to predict the actions of either cooperative or competitive individuals (or firms). In cooperative game theory, the agreements that emerge from colluding individuals are examined. Noncooperative game theory is concerned with the actions of rational, intelligent individuals competing independently. A key element of this theory is the Nast equilibrium, i.e., a set of strategies, one for each individual, such that no individual would then unilaterally like to change the strategy. Typically, the individuals are assumed to adopt strategies in accordance with this equilibrium (assuming that such an equilibrium exists). For an overview of game theory in marketing, see Moorthy (1985).
    garbology
    The study of consumer behavior and preferences for foods and products by examining disposed goods and other items found in the trash and garbage.
    garment district
    The leading apparel and textile center in the country located in New York City along or near Seventh Avenue in the 34th Street vicinity.
    gatekeeper
    Usually, the individual who controls the flow of information from the mass media to the group or individual. It also is used to indicate the individual who controls decision making by controlling the purchase process. In a traditional family, the mother often functions as the gatekeeper between the child and his/her exposure to the mass media and the purchase of toys or products. In an organization, the purchasing agent is often the gatekeeper between the end user and the vendor of products or services.
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  • buying roles
  • Gateway Page
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • Doorway Page
  • GATT
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    GDP
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
    An institutional framework that provides a set of rules and principles committed to the liberalization of trade between countries.
    general costs
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • common costs
  • General Electric's strategic business planning gri
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    general merchandise store
    An establishment primarily selling household linens and dry goods, and either apparel and accessories or furniture and home furnishings. Establishments that meet the criteria for department stores, except as to employment, are included in this classification. Included for Census purposes are establishments whose sales of apparel or of furniture and home furnishings exceed half of their total sales, if sales of the smaller of the two lines in combination with dry goods and household linens accounts for 20 percent of total sales.
    general merchandise wholesaler
    A wholesaler that carries a variety of goods in several distinct and unrelated merchandise lines.
    general sales manager
    This manager has overall responsibility for corporate, group, or division sales. Sales management at this level is concerned with developing sales policies, strategies, and plans that support the overall marketing plan. In a small company the general sales manager may supervise all salespeople directly. As the number of salespeople increases, however, supervision of salespeople must be delegated to field sales managers. In a functionally organized company, the general sales manager reports to the marketing manager or the chief executive. In a divisionalized corporation, the general sales manager reports to the division marketing manager or to the division manager. In a divisionalized company with a centralized sales organization, the general sales manager reports to the chief executive or to a group executive.
    general store
    An establishment primarily selling a general line of merchandise, the most important being food. The more important subsidiary lines are notions, apparel, farm supplies, and gasoline. Sales of food account for at least one-third and not more than two-thirds of total sales. This establishment is usually located in rural communities.
    Generalized Elimination Model
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    generalized extreme value distribution
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    generalized least-squares
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
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  • elasticon
  • general-line wholesaler
    A wholesaler who carries a complete stock of one type of merchandise, corresponding roughly to a substantial majority of the total merchandise requirements of customers in a major line of trade or industry classification.
    general-specific-general theory
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    generic advertising
    An approach to preparing advertising messages that concentrates on the customer benefits that apply to all brands in a product category, as opposed to benefits that are unique to specific brands.
    generic brand
    A product that is named only by its generic class (e.g., drip-grind coffee, barber shop). Other products have both an individual brand and a generic classification (Maxwell House drip-grind coffee, Maurice's barber shop). Generic brand products are often thought to be unbranded, but their producer or reseller name is usually associated with the product, too. This approach is usually associated with food and other packaged goods, but many other consumer and industrial products and services are marked as generics.
    generic strategies
    Generalized plans that work across a range of industries and markets. They provide management with a set of strategic options, one (or a combination) of which can be chosen for application in a specific situation. Generic strategies do not provide specifics and the detail needed to be developed for any specific situation.
    generic terms, as brand names
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
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  • brand generic
  • genericize
    Colloquial term used to describe what happens to a brand name when it becomes so well recognized by consumers that the brand serves as the overall category name. For example: Kleenex, Xerox, Scotch tape, Jello, Roller Blades, Post-it notes and Band-Aid.
    Geo Targeting
    Delivery of ads specific to the geographic location of the searcher. Geo-targeting allows the advertiser to specify where ads will or won't be shown based on the searcher's location, enabling more localized and personalized results. Source: Lazworld
    geocentric orientation
    A management orientation based upon the assumption that there are similarities and differences in the world that can be understood and recognized in an integrated world strategy. The geocentric orientation or world orientation is a synthesis of the ethnocentric orientation (home country) and polycentric orientation (host country).
    geodemography
    An availability of demographic consumer behavior and life style data by arbitrary geographic boundaries that are typically quite small.
    geographic edition
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    geographic organization
    A company organized into geographical units that report to a central corporate headquarters. Normally each unit produces the same or similar products as the others, and the unit manager controls both the manufacturing and sales operations. Marketing functions other than sales are usually centralized at the corporate level. Comment: Reasons for geographic organization include high shipping costs or the need for quick delivery for reasons of freshness (e.g., baked goods), both of which require that plants be located near customers.
    geographical organization
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    geographical pricing
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    GEOLINE
    A model providing a decision support system for creating service and sales territory boundaries. The approach aggregates small standard geographic units (SGUs) into sales territories while maximizing the compactness of the territories (i.e., the ease of covering the territory from the standpoint of travel), subject to the constraint that each created territory have the same overall sales activity level (or some other single criterion). (Hess and Samuels 1971).
    georeference classification
    For analysis purposes, the data covering such things as sales, customers, product, and demographics are often classified on a geographical basis. Distribution of such data by individual markets provides the geographical structure of demand that must be serviced. The most useful geographical classification structures for logistical modeling are customer point locations, county, standard metropolitan statistical area, economic trading area, ZIP code, and grid structure.
    GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)
    GIF (pronounced "gift") is a graphics format that can be displayed on almost all web browsers. It is a common compression format used for transferring graphics files between different computers. Most of the "pictures" you see online are GIF files. They display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. GIF images are the most common form of banner creative. Source: Lazworld
    gift
    An item of value that is offered by the seller as an inducement to influence the consideration or purchase of a product or service.
    GLA
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    global account
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    global advertising
    The use of advertising appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stories, and video and film segments on a global scale.
    global brand
    A brand that is marketed according to the same strategic principles in every part of the world.
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  • local brand
  • global corporation
    A stage of development of a company doing business outside the home country.
    global direct marketing
    Direct marketing across national borders.
    global marketing
    1. (global marketing definition) A marketing strategy that consciously addresses global customers, markets, and competition in formulating a business strategy. 2. (consumer behavior definition) An approach to international strategy that argues for marketing a product in essentially the same way everywhere in the world.
    global marketing information systems
    A system designed to acquire, store, catalog, analyze, and make available to decision makers information from global sources within and external to the firm for use as the basis for planning and decision making.
    global retailing
    Any retailing activity that spans national boundaries.
    global strategic partnerships
    A linkage between two companies to jointly pursue a common goal on a global scale. They also are called strategic alliances and collaborative agreements.
    global strategy
    A strategy that seeks competitive advantage with strategic moves that are highly interdependent across countries. These moves include most or all of the following: a standardized core product that exploits or creates homogenous tastes or performance requirements, significant participation in all major country markets to build volume, a concentration of value-creating activities such as R&D and manufacturing in a few countries, and a coherent competitive strategy that pits the worldwide capabilities of the business against the competition.
    GNP
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    goal
    A concrete, short-term point of measurement that the business unit intends to meet in pursuit of its objectives. An overall objective converts into specific short-run goals.
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  • cognition
  • gondola
    A gondola is an island type of self service counter with tiers of shelves back-to-back.
    good guy-bad guy routine
    A negotiation strategy in which one member of a sales team makes an attractive offer to the prospect (a good guy) and another member discusses the difficulty in making such an attractive offer (a bad guy). The objective of the strategy is to get the prospect to accept the good guy's proposal.
    good(s)
    A product that has tangible form, in contrast to services that are intangible.
    goodwill
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    government information on industrial markets
    The set of data about industrial markets that the government collects and distributes. It tends to be organized around the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.
    government market
    This market includes purchases by the governmental units-federal, state, and local-that procure or rent goods and services in carrying out the main functions of the government. The federal government accounts for almost 40 percent of the total spent by all levels of government, making it the nation's largest customer. Federal, state, and local government agencies buy a wide range of products and services. They buy bombers, sculpture, chalkboards, furniture, toiletries, clothing, fire engines, vehicles, and fuel.
    government program
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    grade class
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • grade labeling
  • grade labeling
    A system of identification that describes products by their quality, using agreed-on numbers or letters. The grade classes (standards) and the requirements for each are usually assigned by a government or trade group, and the actual scoring is sometimes done by inspectors. Grade labeling leads to product standardization and ease of comparison by the buyer, often the purpose of the labeling.
    grading
    The classifying of a product by examining its quality. It is often done with a program of grade labeling, though individual firms can grade their own products by a private system if they wish, e.g., Good, Better, Best.
    graphic-rating scale
    A scale in which individuals indicate their ratings of an attribute by placing a check at the appropriate point on a line that runs from one extreme of the attribute to the other.
    gravitational site selection model
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    gravity model
    A theory about the structure of market areas. The model states that the volume of purchases by consumers and the frequency of trips to the outlets are a function of the size of the store and the distance between the store and the origin of the shopping trip.
    gray market good
    Merchandise that possesses a valid U.S. registered trademark and is made by a foreign manufacturer, but is imported into the United States without permission of the U.S. trademark owner.
    green marketing
    1. (retailing definition) The marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. 2. (social marketing definition) The development and marketing of products designed to minimize negative effects on the physical environment or to improve its quality. 3. (environments definition) The efforts by organizations to produce, promote, package, and reclaim products in a manner that is sensitive or responsive to ecological concerns.
    Green River ordinance
    A municipal ordinance regulating or forbidding house-to-house selling, canvassing, or soliciting of business. It was first enacted in Green River, Wyoming.
    greeter
    A person who greets customers when entering the store and provides information and/or assistance.
    gridiron pattern
    A store layout of fixtures and aisles in a repetitive or rectilinear pattern, best illustrated by a variety store or the grocery department in a typical supermarket. Secondary aisles run at right angles to aisles, and each aisle is usually of the same width for its length.
    gross additional markup
    The original amount of additional markup taken before subtraction of any additional markup cancellations to determine net additional markup.
    gross cost of merchandise handled
    The cost value of the opening inventory plus purchases and additions at billed cost.
    gross cost of merchandise sold
    The gross cost of merchandise handled less the closing inventory at cost. The gross cost of merchandise sold is subtracted from net sales to calculate maintained markup. Maintained markup is then adjusted by cash discounts and workroom costs to determine gross margin of profit.
    gross domestic product (GDP)
    1. An estimate of the total national output of goods and services produced in a single country in a given time period and valued at market price. 2. GDP equals gross national product less net property income from abroad.
    gross investment
    The total market value of all capital goods included in the gross national product in a given period.
    >>See Also
  • net investment
  • gross leasable area (GLA)
    The area of a shopping plaza that is assigned to stores, excluding exits, corridors, and open space.
    gross margin
    Gross margin (also called gross profit margin or gross profit rate) is the difference between revenue and cost before accounting for certain other costs. Generally, it is calculated as the selling price of an item, less the cost of goods sold (production or acquisition costs, essentially). Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_margin
    gross markdown
    The original amount of markdown taken before subtraction of any markdown cancellations to determine net markdown.
    gross national product (GNP)
    1. The money value of a nation's entire output of final commodities and services in a given period. 2. Personal consumption expenditures plus gross private domestic investment plus net exports of goods plus government purchases of goods and services. The U.S. Department of Commerce has published continuously the national income statistical series since 1947. In former years gross national product was emphasized by politicians, the press, etc.; in more recent years gross domestic product has been emphasized.
    gross profit
    1. Net sales minus cost of goods sold. 2. The difference between purchase price of an item and the sale price.
    gross rating point (1) (GRP)
    A measure of the total amount of the advertising exposures produced by a specific media vehicle or a media schedule during a specific period of time. It is expressed in terms of the rating of a specific media vehicle (if only one is being used) or the sum of all the ratings of the vehicles included in a media schedule. It includes any audience duplication and is equal to the reach of a media schedule multiplied by the average frequency of the schedule.
    Gross Rating Point (2)
    One percentage point of a specified target audience. Total GRPs for a campaign can be calculated by the formula 'Reach times average frequency'. This is a measure of the advertising weight delivered by a medium or media within a given time period. A given total of gross rating points may be arrived at by adding together ratings from many different spots. GRPs may, thus, sum to more than 100% of the total target audience. Source: IEG
    gross sales
    Gross sales are the sum of all sales during a time period. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_sales#Gross_sales_and_net_sales
    group brand manager
    (See also group product manager.)
    group buying
    The consolidating of buying requirements of several to many individual stores.
    group in-depth interview
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    group membership
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • stereotype
  • group product manager
    This manager reports to the marketing manager and supervises several product managers and/or brand managers in companies, or divisions of companies in which there are more product managers and/or brand managers than the marketing manager can supervise directly.
    group, as in organization
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    growth market life cycle stage
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    growth objectives
    The needed and desired performance results to be reached by means outside the present products and markets. Objectives are identified by a direct translation of business goals from the growth strategy. The growth objectives guide decision making so a firm can reduce the gap between the forecasts of profit contribution of present products and markets from the overall objectives.
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  • gap analysis
  • growth stage
    (See also product life cycle .)
    growth stage of product life cycle
    The second stage of the product life cycle, during which sales are increasing at an increasing rate, profits are increasing, and competitors enter the market. Product differentiation takes place, and price competition begins. Industry profits usually taper off as the product category enters the third (mature) stage, during which sales increases come only at a declining rate and eventually cease.
    growth strategy
    Market share expan-sion is the prime objective under this strategy, even at the expense of short-term earnings. The firm may seek to expand market share through a number of alternative routes. First, the firm may seek new users who may previously have been loyal to other brands, or tended to switch, or were not users of the category at all. The second way in which the firm can expand its market share is to expand usage by current users: for instance, by identifying and promoting new uses.
    GRP
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    guarantee
    The assurance, expressed or implied, of the quality of goods offered for sale. Expressed guarantee, with definite promise of money back or other specific assurance, is often used as a sales aid, especially in nonstore retailing.
    guaranty
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    >>See Also
  • guarantee
  • guerilla marketing
    Unconventional marketing intended to get maximum results from minimal resources.
    guidance
    Refer to "See Also" column to the right.
    Guttman scale
    A general procedure to determine whether or not the responses of subjects to a set of items form a scale. If the items form a scale, only a limited number of response patterns are possible, and relative nonoccurrence of deviant patterns allows the recovery of the order of the individuals and category boundaries of the items from the observed data.