TOC: Evolutionary Bases of Consumption


The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption, Book by Gad Saad

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Gad Saad
The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption

Table of Contents

Series Foreword xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction xvii

1 What Is Evolutionary Psychology? 1

    Historical Overview Leading Up to the Founding of Evolutionary Psychology 2
    What is Evolutionary Psychology? 5
    Proximate Versus Ultimate Explanations 8
    Domain-Specific Versus General-Purpose Modules 13
    Chapter Summary 16

2 Consumer Research: Domain-General and Proximate-Level Theorizing 18

    Proximate Models Utilizing Domain-Independent General-Purpose Mechanisms 19
    Learning 20
    Motivation 23
    Culture 24
    Standardization Versus Adaptation 28
    Decision Making 31
    Perception 37
    Attitude Formation and Attitude Change 43
    Emotions 45
    Personality 49
    Applications of Evolutionary Psychology in Other Disciplines 53
    Chapter Summary 58

3 Consumption and Darwinian Modules 59

    The Reproductive Module 59
    Human Mating as a Consumption Choice 62
    Information Search in Mate Selection 64
    Gift Giving as a Courtship Ritual 67
    Sex Differences in Aggregate Consumption Patterns 69
    Toy Preferences 70
    Appearance-Enhancing Products and Services 71
    Cosmetic and Plastic Procedures 71
    High Heels, Haircuts, and Provocative Attire 73
    The Myth Behind the Beauty Myth 75
    Risk-Related Consumption Phenomena 78
    Financial Risk Taking 78
    Physical Risk Taking 80
    The Evolutionary Roots of Conspicuous Consumption 84
    Conspicuous Consumption in Religious Settings 89
    The Universality and Innateness of Conspicuous Consumption 91
    Philanthropy: Costly Signaling Via Nonreciprocal Altruism 95
    The Survival Module 97
    The Kin Selection Module 101
    Family Research in Consumer Behavior 101
    Evolutionary Account of Kin Relationships 104
    Darwinian Perspective on Birth Order Effects in the Consumption Setting 108
    The Reciprocation Module 111
    Gift Giving as a Means of Creating and/or Solidifying Bonds 112
    Consumption Behaviors Meant to Signal Group Membership 113
    Identifying the Nonreciprocators 117
    Cross-Cultural Differences in the Definition of Friendship 119
    Chapter Summary 121

4 Advertising Content and Media Effects: Mirrors of Human Nature 123

    Masculinity and Femininity From a Social Constructivist Perspective 124
    Depiction of Femininity 125
    Depiction of Masculinity 128
    Depiction of Masculinity and Femininity in Children’s Mediums 133
    Depiction of the Dynamics Between Men and Women 136
    Evolutionary Account of Masculinity and Femininity 138
    Depiction of Sexuality in Advertising 141
    Use of Sexual Imagery and the Depiction of Women in Advertising 141
    Variables That Moderate Reactions to Sex in Advertising 146
    Condemnation of Advertising 147
    Prescriptive Strategies to Address “Sexist” Advertising 150
    Standardization Versus Adaptation of Advertising Message 152
    Advertising Slogans and Darwinian Modules 155
    Physical Attractiveness in Advertising: A Darwinian Perspective 157
    Chapter Summary 161

5 The Darwinian Roots of Cultural Products 163

    Evolutionary Perspective on Culture 165
    Memetic Theory 166
    Content Analysis of Specific Cultural Products 168?
    Television Themes 169
    Soap Operas 174
    Talk Shows 179
    Movies 183
    Songs 188
    Music Videos 196
    Literature 198
    Self-Help Books 202
    Religion 211
    Art 214
    Chapter Summary 217

6 The Darwinian Roots of “Dark-Side” Consumption 219

    The Darwinian Etiology of the Seven Deadly Sins 220
    Darwinian Medicine and the Promotion of Health 222
    Public Service Announcements and Evolutionary Theory 224
    Analysis of Specific Dark-Side Consumption Behaviors 227
    Pornography 228
    Eating Disorders 236
    Social Constructivist Perspective 236
    Evolutionary Perspective 243
    Gambling 245
    Demographic Risk Factors Associated With Pathological Gambling 247
    Domain-General Perspective of Addiction 250
    Proximate Theories of Gambling 252
    Evolutionary Explanation of Pathological Gambling 254
    Compulsive Buying 255
    Women and Compulsive Buying 256
    Domain-General Perspective of Compulsive Buying 257
    Proximate Issues Addressed by Marketing Scholars 259
    Evolutionary Explanation of Compulsive Buying 261
    Chapter Summary 263

7 Benefits of Darwinizing Consumer Research 265

    Consilience, Fuller Explanations, and Novel Hypotheses 265
    Evolutionary Psychology as an Epistemological Heuristic 269
    Does Evolutionary Theory Yield Inactionable and/or Impractical Information? 271
    The “Darwinizing” of the Cognate Disciplines Closest to Consumer Behavior 272
    Chapter Summary 275
    Concluding Remarks 276