Export Performance and Promotion
Exports, Export Performance and Export Promotion, Special issue of the European Journal of International Management, Edited by Gerhard Apfelthaler and Dilek Zamantili Nayir; Deadline 1 May 2008
European Journal of International Management (EJIM) Call for Papers – Special Issue on:
“Exports, Export Performance and Export Promotion"
Preliminary release date: August 2009
Guest Editors: Gerhard Apfelthaler, FH JOANNEUM (Austria) and Dilek Zamantili Nayir, Marmara University (Turkey)
As of today, worldwide exporting accounts for more than 10 % of global economic activity (e.g., International Monetary Fund, 2001; World Bank, 2001), world trade increased 16-fold between 1950 and 2000, and international trade flows relative to GDP have doubled between 1970 and 2000 (OECD, 2005). With export quotas in excess of 40 % or more, exports have become a major source of national income for many small, open economies and a source of growth and survival for many micro, small, medium and large enterprises, especially in Europe. Relative to the discussions about various aspects of the global business activities of a multinational enterprise, the extant international business literature is dedicating surprisingly little attention to exporting as a mode of market entry. Little is still known about companies’ motivations to engage in exporting activities, ways and means of assessing their readiness to export, how and to what extent marketing-mix decisions are made in exporting companies, or how foreign target markets are selected, which warrants a closer look at these topics.
Of more specific interest is the academic discourse about export performance. The interest in export performance is stemming from two sources. Governments consider exports as engines of growth and are therefore concerned about the ways of improving their firms’ performances in export markets (Zou, Taylor and Osland, 1998). From the point of view of public policy makers, a better understanding of export performance is important, as exports allow for the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves, result in increased employment levels, improved productivity, and – ultimately – enhanced prosperity (Czinkota, 1994). From the corporate point of view, there has been agreement that export performance is considered a tool to boost corporate growth, strengthen competitive edge, and ensure company survival in a highly competitive marketplace (Samiee and Walters, 1990; Terpstra and Sarathy, 2000). And yet, little do we know about the determinants and the measurement of export performance. Whilst the definition and determinants of export performance (e. g. Sousa and Alserhan, 2002; Cavusgil and Kirpalani, 1993; Samiee and Anckar, 1998) or factors contributing to export performance have received noticeable research attention (f.i. Aaby and Slater, 1989; Cavusgil and Zou, 1994; Zou, Taylor and Osland, 1998; Thirkell and Dau, 1998), we are still far from a basic agreement. As an example, most studies in the field have measured export performance using objectively verifiable indicators such as export sales, export growth, export profitability, export market share, or export intensity (Zou, Taylor and Osland, 1998). Others have suggested to use subjective scales in the measurement of export performance and even include dimensions such as organizational learning. The further discussion of both such traditional and innovative approaches should shed more light into the matter.
Another important aspect in the research of exporting is export promotion. By providing the knowledge and competence applied to export market development (Gencturk and Kotabe, 2001), governments worldwide try to assist in the development of firms’ competitiveness. Seldomly there is a government which does not provide a plethora of export assistance or export promotion services through one or several – sometimes many – government and semi-government institutions and programs. So far, the effectiveness of these programmes has not been researched thoroughly and is still far from being clear. According to some researchers, export promotion programmes have impressive results speaking for them. For instance, Coughlin and Cartwright (1987) have found that for every increase of $1 in public export assistance expenditures there is a $432 increase in exports. In a more recent study about export performance of firms in Chile, Alvarez (2004) has shown that permanent and successful exporters have used public export promotion programmes more intensively than less successful exporters. There are others who argue that rather than public export programmes it is the market forces which determine the export performance of firms. Reliable evidence, according to the critics, is simply not available (Nothdurft, 1992). The jury on this isssue is still out, and so we would like to encourage new and innovative contributions to this field.
Topics covered include, but are not limited to:
· Exporting in general:
o The role of exports for national economies.
o Motivation to engage in exporting activities.
o Corporate readiness for exporting.
o Exporting and marketing-mix decisions.
o Foreign target market selection.
o Export development in small and medium-sized enterprises.
o The importance of exports for company growth.
· Export Performance:
o Determinants of export performance.
o Objective vs. subjective measurements of export performance
o Measurement models of export performance.
· Export Promotion:
o The role of national governments in export promotion.
o New approaches to export promotion.
o Measuring export promotion effectiveness.
We are looking to include both conceptual and empirical papers in this special issue. Papers with a multi-country, comparative perspective will be preferred.
Submitted papers should not have been previously published nor be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. All papers are refereed through a peer review process. A guide for authors, sample copies and other relevant information for submitting papers are available on the Author Guidelines page at http://www.inderscience.com/www/authorguide.pdf
Deadline for submissions of completed papers: May 1, 2008
Double blind review of paper and feedback from review given to the author(s) by: August 15, 2008
Deadline for Final Submission of corrected papers: November 15, 2008
No Changes can be made to the papers after: February 1, 2009
You may send one copy in the form of an MS Word file attached to an e-mail (details in Author Guidelines) to both the following:
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Apfelthaler
Dr. Dilek Zamantili Nayir
with an email copy only to EJIM Editorial Team at email@example.com and IEL Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org
Please include in your submission the title of the Special Issue, the title of the Journal (“European Journal of International Management”) and the name of the Guest Editors!
Aaby, N.-E. and Slater S. F. (1989). Management influences on export performance: A review of the empirical literature 1978-1988. International Marketing Review 6 (4). 7-26.
Alvarez R. E. (2004). Sources of export success in small and medium-sized enterprises: the impact of public programs. International Business Review 13. 383–400
Cavusgil, S. T. and Kirpalani V. H. (1993). Introducing products into export markets: Success factors. Journal of Business Research, 27 (1), 1–15.
Cavusgil T. and Zou S. (1994). Marketing strategy-performance relationship: An
investigation of the empirical link in export market ventures. Journal of Marketing, 58. 1-21.
Coughlin, C. C. and Cartwright P. A. (1987). An examination of state foreign export promotion and manufacturing exports. Journal of Regional Science, 27, 439-49.
Czinkota, M. R. (1994). A national export assistance policy for new and growing businesses. Journal of International Marketing 2 (1). 91-101.
Gencturk E. F. and Kotabe M. (2001). The effect of export assistance program usage on export performance: A contigency explanation. Journal of International Marketing 9 (2). 51-72.
International Monetary Fund (2001), Directions of Trade Statistics Yearbook. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund Publication Services.
Nothdurft, W. E. (1992). Going global: how Europe helps small firms export. Washington, D.C.: The German Marshall Fund of the United States and The Brookings Institution.
OECD (2005). Employment Outlook, Paris.
Samiee S. and Walters P. G. P. (1990). Influence of firm size on export planning and performance. Journal of Business Research 20 (3). 235-248.
Samiee, S. and Anckar P. (1998). Currency choice in industrial pricing: a cross-national evaluation. Journal of Marketing 62. 112–127.
Sousa B. and Alserhan B. (2002). An investigation into the antecedents of the export performance literature. 28th EIBA Conference. Athens.
Thirkell P. C. and Dau R. (1998). Export performance: success determinants for New Zealand manufacturing exporters European Journal of Marketing. 32(9/10). 813-829.
Terpstra, V. and Sarathy R. (2000). International Marketing. 8th ed. Forth Worth: The Dryden Press.
World Bank (2001), World Tables. Baltimore: John Hopkins University.
Zou S., Taylor C. R. and Osland G. E. (1998). The EXPERF Scale: A Cross-national generalized export performance measure. Journal of International Marketing 6 (3). 37-58.